Additional Subjects

Students take on additional subjects outside of school with Kilmartin Educational Services for a number of reasons. Many students find that two subjects they hoped to take clash on their school timetable, some schools don't offer the full range of Leaving Cert subjects and some students simply wish to maximise their points!


Our experienced and highly qualified teachers will cover all the coursework, plus any additional project/practical work over either one or two years. Usually the classes will be one hour and a half in length per week. Christmas and Pre-Leaving Cert exams will also be set and the results will be posted home so that parents can monitor progress. Be advised that taking on an additional subject is not easy, particularly if you are hoping to cover the course in one year, but our teachers will guide you through the process and focus on how you can achieve the best possible grades!


Below is a broad outline of the economics course (for students taking this course outside of school).  For each topic, students will be given:

(1) A topic list (a list of all of the concepts/theories/ issues that the student must know for a given topic),

(2) A copy of all past exam questions for a given topic from the last 10 years

(3) A gapped handout which covers everything on the topic list.     

The focus of each class will be on (a) working through the gapped handout so that the course content is learned and (b) working through the past exam questions. 

For 5th years studying economics outside of school, there are 4 official exams at KES: Halloween, Christmas, Easter and Summer.  For 6th years, studying economics outside of school, there are 5 official exams at KES: Halloween, Christmas and 3 mock exams in term 2.  The Leaving Cert exam itself must be taken at each students own school.

Topics will include:

Topic 1: Markets and Elasticity

This topic covers the basic microeconomic principles of demand, supply and elasticity.

Topic 2: Producer Theory

This topic covers the theory of the firm.  In particular, firms’ costs and how the degree of competition in the industry affects individual firms, in terms of prices, output, and the amount of profit that can be earned.    

Topic 3: Factor Income

This topic covers the four factors of production: land, labour, capital and enterprise. 

Topic 4: National Income

This is the foundation topic for macroeconomics in that it covers how national income is determined.  (A simple demand determined model of national income is used). 

Topic 5: Unemployment and the Economics of Population

The economics of population section covers issues such as the aging population and emigration.

Topic 6: Inflation

Topic 7: Money and Banking

The main issues covered here are how commercial banks operate, the European Central Bank and Monetary Policy and current banking issues such as NAMA and bank nationalisation

Topic 8: The Government and the Economy

This topic covers what the government can do to influence the economy and in particular what the current policies are.  Also this topic covers the details of governments own accounts (income and expenditure) and the economic impact of a government budget surplus or a deficit. If the government runs a deficit, then government borrowing will take place so this is where government borrowing is covered. 

Topic 9: International Trade and the Balance of Payments

The main issues relating to international trade are: the law of comparative advantage, imports and exports and exchange rates.  The balance of payments is a record of our transactions with the rest of the world over a period of time i.e. it records the total amount of money that comes into the country and the total amount of money that goes out of the country. Foreign Direct Investment is also covered here as is the European Union. 

Topic 10: Economic Growth and Development

The difference between economic growth and economic development is addressed here,

aswell as the costs and benefits of growth and development. In addition, we take a brief look at developing economies, what the requirements are for economic development and what the developed countries can do to help. 

Topic 11: Economic Thought

The three types of economic systems are covered here: a market economy, a command economy and a mixed economy. Also we examine the contribution made by some of the most famous economists, starting with the alleged father of Modern Economics, Adam Smith (1923-1790).  It is appropriate to learn about the economists at the end of the course as the economic theories and ideas will already have been learned so it will just be a matter of associating a particular economist with these theories and ideas.